However, inclusion of students with disabilities into general education classrooms has taken decades to be considered appropriate practice. Controversies, research, and legislation have shaped a collaborative relationship between general and special education. A wide range of political, epistemological, and institutional factors have facilitated a more child-centered public education.
WEAC represents K public school teachers and education support professionals, as well as faculty and support staff in the Wisconsin Technical College System, retired members, and university students studying to become educators.
Visit our Home Page at www. Inclusion remains a controversial concept in education because it relates to educational and social values, as well as to our sense of individual worth. Any discussion about inclusion should address several important questions: Do we value all children equally?
There are advocates on both sides of the issue. James Kauffman of the University of Virginia views inclusion as a policy driven by an unrealistic expectation that money will be saved.
Furthermore, he argues that trying to force all students into the inclusion mold is just as coercive and discriminatory as trying to force all students into the mold of a special education class or residential institution.
Between the two extremes are large groups of educators and parents who are confused by the concept itself. They wonder whether inclusion is legally required and wonder what is best for children. They also question what it is that schools and school personnel must do to meet the needs of children with disabilities.
While recognizing that there are no simple answers, this paper attempts to give an overview of the concept of inclusion and offers a set of recommendations that can help to ensure that we meet the needs of all students. Definitions In order to discuss the concept of inclusion, it is first necessary to have a common vocabulary.
The following have been edited for clarity. This concept is closely linked to traditional forms of special education service delivery. Inclusion Inclusion is a term which expresses commitment to educate each child, to the maximum extent appropriate, in the school and classroom he or she would otherwise attend.
It involves bringing the support services to the child rather than moving the child to the services and requires only that the child will benefit from being in the class rather than having to keep up with the other students. Proponents of inclusion generally favor newer forms of education service delivery.
All services must be taken to the child in that setting.
In addition to problems related to definition, it also should be understood that there often is a philosophical or conceptual distinction made between mainstreaming and inclusion. In contrast, those who support inclusion believe that the child always should begin in the regular environment and be removed only when appropriate services cannot be provided in the regular classroom.
Does Federal Law Require Inclusion? Two federal laws govern education of children with disabilities. Neither requires inclusion, but both require that a significant effort be made to find an inclusive placement. However, IDEA recognizes that it is not appropriate to place all children in the regular education classroom.
In developing the Individual Education Program IEP for a child with disabilities, the IDEA requires the IEP team to consider placement in the regular education classroom as the starting point in determining the appropriate placement for the child.
The purpose of these requirements is to carry out the intent of the IDEA, which is to educate as many students with disabilities as possible in the regular education classroom, while still meeting their unique, individual needs. Section of the Rehabilitation Act of Section requires that a recipient of federal funds provide for the education of each qualified handicapped person in its jurisdiction with persons who are not handicapped to the maximum extent appropriate to the needs of the handicapped person.
A recipient is required to place a handicapped child in the regular educational environment unless it is demonstrated by the recipient that the education in the regular environment with the use of supplementary aides and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily.2 KIM MICHAUD AND THOMAS E.
SCRUGGS Inclusion in the United States: theory and practice In the United States at the present time, few if any question the essential right of indi- viduals with disabilities to a free, appropriate public education.
The United States education landscape has evolved substantially over the past 50 years. Issues of civil rights -- some of which the landmark Supreme Court case Brown v.
Board of Education addressed -- and the government's role in education ushered in an era of . A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF JAPAN AND THE UNITED STATES Mayumi Nagano Kansai University legal framework to that of the United States. By focusing on the inclusion of students with disabilities – a main tenet of the legal foundation of the special education system in the United States – the gap between.
An Overview of Inclusive Education in the United States: /ch Being a country of diversity, the United States has had a long tradition of research and practices in special education in the form of inclusion. The emphasis on inclusion is long-standing in our education programs for children with disabilities.
Inclusion in the U.S. education system refers to a commitment to educate each child, to the maximum extent appropriate, in the school and classroom he or she would otherwise attend.
Sep 08, · “If child-specific factors were solely responsible for education placement decisions, one would expect states to have similar rates of inclusive, self-contained, mainstreaming and separate school placements for students with ASDs,” Kurth wrote.