Choosing a Pen Name: Women could not publish. Back in the s, The Bronte sisters: Emily, Charlotte, and Anne, had pen names.
But not everything expressed in words—even when organized and written down—is counted as literature.
Those writings that are primarily informative—technical, scholarly, journalistic—would be excluded from the rank of literature by most, though not all, critics.
Certain forms of writing, however, are universally regarded as belonging to literature as an art. Individual attempts within these forms are said to succeed if they possess something called artistic merit and to fail if they do not.
The nature of artistic merit is less easy to define than to recognize. The writer need not even pursue it to attain it. On the contrary, a scientific exposition might be of great literary value and a pedestrian poem of none at all.
The purest or, at least, the most intense literary form is the lyric poem, and after it comes elegiac, epic, dramatic, narrative, and expository verse. Most theories of literary criticism base themselves on an analysis of poetrybecause the aesthetic problems of literature are there presented in their simplest and purest form.
Poetry that fails as literature is not called poetry at all but verse. The Greeks thought of history as one of the seven arts, inspired by a goddess, the muse Clio. The essay was once written deliberately as a piece of literature: Today most essays are written as expository, informative journalismalthough there are still essayists in the great tradition who think of themselves as artists.
Now, as in the past, some of the greatest essayists are critics of literature, drama, and the arts. Some examples of this biographical literature were written with posterity in mind, others with no thought of their being read by anyone but the writer. Some are in a highly polished literary style; others, couched in a privately evolved language, win their standing as literature because of their cogency, insight, depth, and scope.
Many works of philosophy are classed as literature. The Dialogues of Plato 4th century bc are written with great narrative skill and in the finest prose; the Meditations of the 2nd-century Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius are a collection of apparently random thoughts, and the Greek in which they are written is eccentric.
Yet both are classed as literature, while the speculations of other philosophers, ancient and modern, are not. Certain scientific works endure as literature long after their scientific content has become outdated.
This is particularly true of books of natural history, where the element of personal observation is of special importance. Oratorythe art of persuasion, was long considered a great literary art. The oratory of the American Indianfor instance, is famous, while in Classical Greece, Polymnia was the muse sacred to poetry and oratory.
Today, however, oratory is more usually thought of as a craft than as an art. Most critics would not admit advertising copywriting, purely commercial fiction, or cinema and television scripts as accepted forms of literary expression, although others would hotly dispute their exclusion.
The test in individual cases would seem to be one of enduring satisfaction and, of course, truth.The literature “review”, as it is called, is not simply about reading and sorting and then writing. It’s not really a “review” per se.
In literatures work, writing and thinking are inseparable. and relook at my literature review again to ensure I follow the above guidelines for the benefits of .
He is Associate Professor at the Department of Romance Languages and literatures at Harvard University. Susan Bassnett She established a Centre for the study of Comparative Literature and Translation at the University of Warwick, where she is now Professor Emerita.
Now, I maintain that we could have recourse to stigmatized words, and then voice something else. The social-historical is not a receptacle: in it, there is no sense or end to literature. The grammar of political agendas, the collection of lexical definitions, are no valid reasons to simply erase literature.
Leia «Nineteenth-Century British Literature Then and Now Reading with Hindsight» de Simon Dentith com a Rakuten Kobo. Envisioning today’s readers as poised between an impossible attempt to read texts as their original readers experienced.
Literature’s Arctic Obsession Then, obeying a ghostly summons, he walks out alone to his death on the ice. a Greek geographer and explorer by the name of Pytheas left what is now the.
Prof Shlomo Karni / Biblical and rabbinical literatures are rich in idioms, פְּנִינֵי לָשוֹן, which resonate uniquely in the language. Throughout the ages, some have preserved their original meaning; others got modified; yet others gave rise to new, often unexpected meanings, illustrating (again) .