Army Corps of Engineers Although technically a part of the U. Army Corps of Engineers USACE has played a vital role in the development of civilian transportation infrastructure and water resources since Congress passed the first river and harbors bill in and charged the corps with maintaining navigational channels. Work on the Ohio, Missouri, and Mississippi rivers received first priority, but as settlers moved farther west, attention soon focused on other navigable streams. UntilCongress authorized only navigational improvements on rivers.
Its original designation was the Yak, however this designation was classified by the Soviet military. The Yak was actually a fictitious name, applied to the aircraft which set a number of world records.
By this name this shipborne fighter was known in the West, it was also applied for promotional purposes by Yakovlev Design Bureau. Development of this aircraft began in It had to become the first supersonic aircraft with vertical take off and landing capability.
In addition it should have had weapons and radar, equal to those of the frontline fighters. It is worth mentioning, that Yakovlev Design Bureau already had a great experience in creating aircraft with vertical take off and landing capability, such as the Yak and Yak The last mentioned has been successfully tested during the Soviet War in Afghanistan.
However Soviet government and military officials were not entirely satisfied with the Yak, as its performance was not quite enough, especially operational range and electronic systems. Also the Yak was inferior to the British Harrier. So in Yakovlev Design Bureau was ordered to develop a more powerful and unprecedented plane with supersonic speed, vertical take-off and landing capability, longer range and a powerful armament, that could take-off from aircraft carriers.
Designers from the Yakovlev bureau found out, that the double engine scheme of the Yak and Harrier was not suitable for the new plane. These would turn on only during vertical take-off, vertical landing and hovering. Engineers had to stretch body of the aircraft for aerodynamic stability.
This is why the Yak is larger than its predecessor, the Yak Initially a "duck" configuration with a single square-shaped engine was discussed, however soon this idea was declined because of low maneuverability and technical problems, even though such scheme was low observable.
After nearly 20 years a plane with such kind of layout and propulsion, the X, lost tender in the USA during the Joint Strike Fighter program to the F The first prototypes of the Yak were completed in Altogether 4 planes were built, two for static tests and two for flight tests.
Aircraft made its first flight and test flights began the same year. Flight tests were successfully conducted inwhen aircraft made passed a full test program, including vertical take-off and landing, short take-off, flying at supersonic speed then slowing down to hovering and so on.
In during a single flight the new aircraft set 12 world records in its class.
One of the records was achieving a 12 km vertical take-off. After this flight the new plane received the Yak designation. In two prototype aircraft performed their first vertical landing on Baku later renamed Admiral Gorshkov Kiev class light aircraft carrier. The Yak was intended both for naval aviation and air force.
Primary user was the Soviet Navy. A futuristic and innovative idea was bound with this airplane. Idea was to create a mobile take-off and landing platform, which had small dimensions and could withstand aircraft's weight and hot jets from the engines.
This platform would be mounted on the DT Vityaz articulated all-terrain tracked carrier which was also under development at that time.
The Vityaz could transport the platform to such territories, that could not be reached by usual off-road vehicles and were no opportunities to build an airfield. The Yak could land on this mobile platform, fill the fuel from another DT tanker and continue its mission. Payload capacity of the DT is 30 t, so such kind of mission was no problem for it.
Actual tests of the Yak, based on the DT were made, however development of the Vityaz was protracted and soon the Yak program appeared to be on the brink of failure.
So this unprecedented idea, which could give advantage to the Soviet Union was not implemented. The Yak was capable of engaging air, ground and sea targets.The Role of Engineering in Society: Engineering Design Some will say that I'm an academic and that I'm supposed to be a scientist, but I have this craving to be an engineer.
Waldron. The National Research Council recently recognized the need for improvement in . The fire at Grenfell Tower in London was a catastrophe which resulted in the deaths of 72 people.
As welI as the legal Inquiry into the circumstances there was an Independent Review of Building Regulations and Fire Safety commissioned by government that was published in May We are excited to announce that C.C.
Johnson & Malhotra, P.C. (CCJM) has acquired Sidhu Associates, Inc., headquartered in Hunt Valley, MD. Sidhu Associates Inc. is now a wholly owned subsidiary of CCJM.
Stimulate women to achieve full potential in careers as engineers and leaders, expanding the image of the engineering profession as a positive force in improving the . Feb 27, · Importance of Engineering in the Society. Updated on April 3, Uzochukw Mike.
more. Engineering plays fundamental roles in banking institutions of various societies. In a bank, there are many engineers that engineer the affairs of the banking activities.
Today, the money is being counted within few seconds by money counting Reviews: current role of engineers, Eliminate excessive usage of resources by optimizing and improving efficiency.
(i.e.) we are currently using fossil fuels and will continue using it for another five or six decades until it gets exhausted, in mean time we might not even think of renewable sources because they are hard to rely on and are expensive.