From to the midth century Revolution and empire The French Revolution of provided no clean break with the complex literary culture of the Enlightenment. Many ways of thinking and feeling—whether based on reason, sentimentor an exacerbated sensibility—and most literary forms persisted with little change from to Certainly, the Napoleonic regime encouraged a return to the Classical mode. Likewise, while the Gothic violence that had emerged in early Revolutionary drama and novels was curbed, its dynamic remained.
Impact of the French Revolution The French Revolution of The French Revolution and the fall of the Bastille in July had an enormous impact on British public opinion in England and influenced the terms on which political debate would be conducted for the next thirty years. The settlement of and the British Constitution Since the constitutional settlement ofwhich balanced the powers of Parliament and the monarchy, the British system of government had enjoyed support across the political spectrum and was much admired by observers from other countries.
This system gave distinct roles in the process of governance and legislation to: The Crown The House of Lords The House of Commons It was felt to combine the best aspects of monarchical, aristocratic and democratic modes of government. It was believed that this combination of forces worked to offset the dangers inherent in allowing any one of them to predominate: Monarchy could easily degenerate into tyranny Aristocracy could degenerate into oligarchy, or the concentration of power in a ruling elite Democracy could become anarchy and the rule of the mob If anything occurred to upset the balance, such as the emergence of corrupt practices in appointments to political offices, the system would work to restore equilibrium.
The growth of political dissent By the s, however, this consensus of opinion was beginning to break down. There had been political dissent earlier in the eighteenth century but it had tended to object to and seek to remedy abuses of the system without questioning the system itself.
In the s and s, various strands of radical political opinion began to question the basis on which the British Constitution was founded: It was argued that democracy was only partial and that this limited the representativeness of the House of Commons. The right to vote, as well as being granted only to men, depended on a property qualification, thus excluding the great mass of the population.
Religious dissenter s, including Roman Catholic s as well as members of nonconformist sects, did not enjoy such full voting rights as were available. Because MPs were required to swear an oath of conformity to the Church of Englandreligious dissenters were not eligible for election to public office.
The road to reform Attempts to introduce Parliamentary reform in, and were defeated in the House of Commons. It was only inthe year after the revised edition of Frankenstein was published, that the Reform Act, with a major extension of the Parliamentary franchise, was passed into law.
The Test and Corporation Acts, removing most of the political restrictions on religious dissenters, had been repealed inand the Roman Catholic Emancipation Act followed in In this work, he argued that the Revolution of represented an improvement on the settlement in the following areas: Matters of the liberty of conscience The right to resist abuses of power The right to choose and dismiss governments Edmund Burke Edmund Burke was the son of an Irish Protestant lawyer and his Roman Catholic wife.
He also studied law, and became a politician and man of letters. His work An Enquiry into the Origins of the Sublime and the Beautiful was extremely influential in the formation of aesthetic taste in relation to the natural world: He argued against the way in which the House of Commons was dominated by the King and his supporters He spoke and wrote on behalf of Roman Catholic emancipation He supported the American Revolution The French Revolutionhowever, horrified Edmund Burke: In Reflections on the Revolution in France he refuted Richard Price's argument that the people had the right to dismiss the elected government and form a new one, and he appealed to the lessons of history in support of his view He believed that society was an organism rather than a purely administrative or legislative mechanism He thought that the revolutionaries in France were atheist s who had offended against history by overthrowing the monarchy When he was in France inhe had seen Queen Marie Antoinette; she had come to represent for Burke all that was sacred in the principle of monarchy, and he wrote a eulogy of her in Reflections.
For Burke, then, the principles of the English settlement remained the best basis for government. He emigrated to America in after being dismissed from his job as an excise officer for seeking an increase in pay.
He worked on behalf of American independence and served in Washington's army, fighting against British troops. He returned to England in and published the two parts of The Rights of Man in and as a direct response to Burke's Reflections: The yearsbeginning with the execution of Louis XVI in Januarysaw bitter conflicts in France as different political groups fought for supremacy.
The French Revolution, which began inresulted in the overthrow of the French monarchy and ultimately helped Napoleon Bonaparte to seize control in Name of the fortress built in Paris in the 14th century.
Later used as a prison and was destroyed at the beginning of the French Revolution. Someone who disagrees with an opinion; often used with reference to religious belief or practice.
Sometimes used to denote all Christians 2. Used specifically of the Roman Catholic church. Differing in opinion; often used with reference to religious belief or practice.
Middle French menestre, ministre 'servant'. Someone who serves God and other people; used of those who hold office and lead worship in the Christian Church.The Romantic movement of 19th century art and literature was influenced by revolutionary events such as the French and American revolutions.
 The 18th century Romantic poets were influenced by many outside influences but chief among them was the revolution occurring in France. The French Revolution (–) was a period of ideological, political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French polity, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on Enlightenment .
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Events initially external to England, such as the French Revolution, are internalized in Romantic literature as a part of the debates on more relevant, internal issues in English politics, such as the prededing American Revolution and the imminent Irish Uprising of The Romantic Revolution: A History (Modern Library Chronicles) [Tim Blanning] on mtb15.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
“A splendidly pithy and provocative introduction to the culture of Romanticism.” —The Sunday Times “[Tim Blanning is] in a particularly good position to speak of the arrival of Romanticism on the Euorpean scene. French literature - The 18th century to the Revolution of The death of Louis XIV on September 1, , closed an epoch, and thus the date of is a useful starting point for the Enlightenment.
The beginnings of critical thought, however, go back much further, to about , where one can begin to discern a new intellectual climate of .